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Triple ​Star Records

Lost Children Foundation, Incorporated

Literacy, Personal Training, and Continuing Education


Hormones that effect weight loss

Posted on November 26, 2013 at 10:11 PM Comments comments (39)
Hormones that affect weight loss:
Insulin is a protein chain or peptide hormone that is produced by the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. The role of insulin is to lower blood sugar, deliver nutrients into cells that need it, and to store fat.  
  • Insulin causes the liver, muscle, and fat tissue to take up glucose and turn it into glycogen in the muscles and the liver.
  • Insulin also prevents utilization of fat as an energy source. In absence of insulin, or when insulin levels are low, the body doesn’t take up glucose and fat is used as an energy source. 
  • Insulin controls other systems in the body as well, and regulates amino acid uptake of the body’s cells.
  • Insulin has several other anabolic effects throughout the body as well.
Glucagon (also a peptide hormone) is secreted the by alpha cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. It’s role is to raise blood glucose levels. The pancreas releases glucagon when blood glucose levels are low.
  • Glucagon causes the liver to convert glycogen into glucose, which then is released in the bloodstream.
  • High blood glucose levels stimulate the release of insulin, which then in turn allows the glucose to be taken up, and used by insulin dependent tissues.
  • Glucose and insulin keep blood glucose levels stable.
Cortisol, also known as hydrocortisone, is a steroid hormone (or a glucocorticoid) produced by the zona fasciculate of the adrenal cortex. It is released in response to stress and low blood glucocorticoids.
  •  It’s main functions are to raise blood glucose levels through gluconeogenesis, suppress the immune system, and assist in metabolizing proteins, fats and carbs.
  •  It also decreases bone formation.
  •  Release is controlled by the hypothalamus of the brain
  • Activates anti-stress and anti-inflammatory pathways.
  • In several studies, cortisol has been shown to (somewhat) suppress lipolysis or the breakdown of fat.
Leptin plays a major role in regulating energy intake, expenditure, appetite, metabolism, as well as behavior. It’s one of the most important adipose-derived hormones.
  •  Functions by binding to the leptin receptor.
  • Leptin tells the brain that the body has had enough to eat, thus producing a feeling of satiety. Leptin may make it easier to avoid the temptation of higher calorie foods.
  • Leptin’s ability to manipulate bone mass was first recognized in the year 2000. Leptin can affect bone metabolism.
  • Leptin receptors are in the hypothalamus and the hippocampus.  Leptin deficiency has been proven to alter brain proteins and neural functions in obese mice.
  •  In humans, low circulating plasma leptin has been linked to cognitive changes associated with anorexia, depression, HIV and the development of Alzheimer’s disease.

How exercise effects fat burn

Posted on November 26, 2013 at 9:47 PM Comments comments (149)
Many are under the impression that their workout turns them into a fat burning machine 24 hours following their workout. It’s a widely held belief that regular workouts result in accelerated fat-burning around the clock.
Not so fast, at least not for moderate-intensity workouts. According to Edward Melanson, PHD, and associate professor of medicine at the University of Colorado
“ Moderate duration exercise of and hour or less has little impact on 24-hour fat oxidation.”
Most studies regarding fat burning—from exercise—have been short-term studies, which spanned only several hours and looked at people who were in an unfed state. Melanson’s team looked at a more true to life scenario where they followed the subjects over a 24-hour period; they exercised and ate normally or they did no exercise and ate.
It’s not that we don’t burn fat through exercise; it’s that we replace the calories with the food we eat. Exercise increases your body’s ability to burn fat, but if you replace the calories, you’re back to square one.
This information shouldn’t dissuade you from exercise; however, it should let you know that you need to be more realistic about calories and calories out.
Melanson's team evaluated fat burning in 10 lean, endurance-trained participants, 10 lean but untrained people, and eight untrained and obese people during exercise conditions and sedentary conditions.
Participants were fed a diet that was 20% fat, 65% carbs, and 15% protein for three days before each session and on the day they exercised or did not exercise. On the exercise day, participants rode a stationary bike at a moderate intensity for one hour, burning about 400 calories.
When Melanson's team measured calorie expenditures, they were higher in each group when they exercised compared to when they did not, not surprisingly, but they found that burning of carbohydrate, not fat, seemed to increase in the 24-hour period after exercising.In the journal report, Melanson reports additional fat-burning studies, including one that compared seven men ages 60-75 with seven other men ages 20-30, with no differences in fat burning between groups for the 24 hours after exercise or no exercise.
Why don't we become long-term fat burners after a good workout?  The most likely reason is that we eat, and what we eat affects fat burning. For instance, eating as little as 240 calories of carbohydrate during the hour before exercise can reduce fat burning during exercise, and the boost in fat burning during exercise can be "blunted" for up to six hours after eating a meal, says Melanson, citing other research.
To maintain their low body fat, endurance-trained exercisers may simply eat less fat than they burn habitually, he says.The study findings are ''dispelling the myth that you can create a 24-hour fat-burning situation after exercise," says Pete McCall, an exercise physiologist and spokesman for the American Council on Exercise. But, he tells WebMD, the findings were limited to exercisers who did moderate-intensity exercise, and for an hour or less. "These results might not apply to different forms of exercise or higher-intensity exercise," McCall says.
Still, he says, the research results might be a crucial wake-up call. "The point of this study, I think, is [that] he is trying to get people out of that mind-set: 'I just worked out and I can eat whatever I want.'" At least for people trying to lose weight, McCall says, that's certainly not true.Melanson says that the take-home message from his research depends on whether you are trying to lose weight or just maintain. "If you are using exercise to lose body weight or body fat, you have to consider how many calories you are expending and how many you are taking in," he says. The goal is a negative fat balance.
"If your body mass index is below 25, you shouldn't be concerned about losing more body fat," he says.